Technical approaches used in the laboratory include 1) functional epifluorescence imaging of transmembrane voltage changes in populations of neurons; 2) multiphoton and confocal imaging of intracellular calcium dynamics both in individual neurons and large populations of neurons; 3) multielectrode array recording of neuronal activation within hippocampal microcircuits; 4) transgenic labeling and gene targeting in specified subpopulations of neurons; 5) optogenetic activation and silencing of specified populations of neurons; and 6) patch clamp and extracellular recording techniques.


In order to understand network dysfunction in epileptic brain, it is necessary to characterize circuit dynamics comparing naïve and epileptic brain. In conventional electrophysiological recording, cellular properties can be characterized in detail ....